Potential Evaluation and Optimization of Natural Biopolymers in Water-Based Drilling Mud

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2 Scince Laboratory Technology, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnics, Saki, Nigeria

Abstract

Drilling cost optimization has always been an important issue in the petroleum industry. In order to save costs and create new markets for local materials, Ofo (D. micocarpum) and food gum (C. populnea) powders were evaluated in this study at high temperature as alternative to imported chemical additives in water based drilling fluid. The base mud composed of alkali beneficiated local clay, achi (B. eurycoma), corn and cocoanut fibers whose viscosity, yield point and gel strength fell short the recommended API standard from preliminary analysis. The two factors were combined using experimental design technique and mud properties optimized numerically using desirability function. At optimum conditions, the mud’s properties obtained include: Plastic viscosity, PV (18.4 ± 0.63 cp), Yield point, Yp (15.7 ± 0.9 lbf/100ft2), Fluid loss, FL (12.1 ± 0.37 ml) and 10 min Gel strength (5.6 ± 0.05 lbf/100ft2). These values are in good agreement with the API recommended standard. Both biopolymers exhibited high potential at low and moderate temperatures. However, food gum is thermally stable, a good rheology stabilizer and filtrate reducer up to the test temperature of 185 oF. The presence and nature of salts in solution influences differently the viscosity of the two bio-polymers.

Keywords


[1] Bloys. B., Davis. N., Smolen. B., Bailey. L., Reid. P., Fraser. L. and Hodder. M. (1994): "Designing and Managing Drilling Fluids." Oilfield Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 33-43.

[2] Annis, M.R. and  Smith, M.V., (1974). Drilling Fluid Technology. Exxon Company, USA.

[3] Mahto, V. and Sharma, V.P. (2004). "Rheological study of a water based oil well drilling fluid." Journal of petroleum and Science Engineering, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 123-128.

[4] Teleman, A., Nordström, M., Tenkanen, M., Jacobs, A. and Dahlman,  O. (2003). "Isolation and characterization of O-acetylated glucomannans from aspen and birch wood." Carbohydrate Research, Vol. 338, No. 6, pp. 525-534.

[5] Lacroix, M. and Le Tien, C. (2005). "Edible Films and Coatings from non-starch Polysaccharides." Innovations in food packaging, pp.  338–361.

[6] Navarrete, R. C., Himes, R. E. and Seheult, J. M. (2000). "Applications of Xanthan Gum in Fluid-Loss Control and Related Formation Damage." SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, TX, March 23−26, 2000; Society of Petroleum Engineers: Richardson, TX, 2000; SPE Paper No. 59535.

[7] Warren, B., van der Horst, P. and Stewart, W. (2003). "Application of amphoteric cellulose ethers in drilling fluids. " In International  Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. Society of Petroleum Engineers.

[8] Iscan, A. G. and Kok, M. V. (2007). "Effects of polymers and CMC concentration on rheological and fluid loss parameters of water-based drilling fluids." Energy Sources, Part A, Vol. 29, No. 10, pp. 939 -949.

[9  Dias, F. T. G., Souza, R. R. and Lucas, E. F. (2015). "Influence of modified starches composition on their performance as fluid loss additives  in invert-emulsion drilling fluids." Fuel, Vol. 140, pp. 711 – 716.

[10] Li, M. C., Wu, Q., Song, K., Lee, S., Ji, C., Ren, S. and Lei, T. (2015).  "Soy protein isolate as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water-based drilling fluids." ACS applied materials & interfaces,  Vol. 7,  No. 44, pp. 24799-24809.

[11] Wang, S., Gao, W., Chen, H. and Xiao, P. (2006). "Studies  on  the  morphological, thermal and crystalline properties of starches separated from medicinal plants." Journal of food engineering, Vol. 76, No.3, pp. 420-426.

[12] Singh, J., Kaur, L. and McCarthy, O. J. (2007). "Factors influencing the physic-chemical, morphological, thermal  and  rheological  properties of some chemically modified starches for food applications— A review." Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1-22.

[13] Omotioma M., Ejikeme P. C. N. and Ume J. I. (2015). "Improving the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud with the Addition of Cassava Starch." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC), Vol. 8, No. 8, Ver. I, pp. 70 -73.

[14] Darley, H. C. H. and Gray, G. R. (1988). Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids, 5th ed. Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston.

[15] Biovis, (2003). Oilfield Polymers–Construction chemicals-Degussa Edition August.

[16] Dolz, M., Jimenez, J., Hernandez, M.J., Delegiodo, J. and Casanovas, A. (2007) "Flow and thixotropy of non-contaminating oil drilling fluids formulated with bentonite and sodium carboxymethylcellulose." Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 294-302.

[17] Olatunde, A. O., Usman, M. A., Olafadehan, O. A., Adeosun, T. A. and Ufot, O. E. (2012). "Improvement of rheological properties of drilling fluid using locally based materials. Petroleum & Coal, Vol. 54, No. 1.

[18] Rakitsky, W. and  Richey, D. (1992). Rapidly hydrating Welan gum. United States Patent 5175277.

[19] Chen, F. (2007). "Study of factors affecting property of Welan gum solution." Food Science. Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 49-52.

[20] Gao, C. (2015). "Potential of Welan gum as fluid thickener." Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp.109– 112.

[21] Kevin, I. and  Bala, Z. (2014). "Evaluation of rheological properties of Detarium micocarpum, Brachystegea eurycoma using Herschel-Buckley model and their commercial availability." Journal of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 2,  pp. 24-31.

[22] Salawudeen, T.O., Arinkoola, A.O., Jimoh, M.O., Salam, K.K. and Ogunmola, E.O. (2016). "Effect of inert fibre on performance of B. eurycomaas rheology and filtration control additive in water-based drilling fluid." International Journal of Petroleum Engineering. Vol. 2, No. 3, pp.191–208.

[23] Suhascaryo, N, Nawangsidi, D. and Handayani, S. R., (2005). "Laboratory Study of High Temperature Additive to Rheology Properties of Drilling Mud Under Dynamic Conditions." Proceedings of World Geothermal Congress, pp 3– 6. 12.

[24] Alakali, J. S., Irtwange, S. V. and Mkavga, M. (2009), "Rheological characteristics of food gum (Cissus populnea)." African Journal of Food Science, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 237–242.

[25] Owuno, F., Eke-Ejiofor, J. and Owuno, G (2012). "Effects of Cissus (Cissus populnea) gum on dough rheology and quality of wheat- cassava composite bread." Journal of food, agriculture & environment, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 80–84.

[26] Eichie, F. E. and Amalime, A. E. (2007). "Evaluation of the binder effects of the gum mucilages of Cissus populnea and Acassia Senegal on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets." African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 2208–2211.

[27] Ojekale, A. B., Ojiako, O. A., Saibu, G. M., Lala, A. and Olodude, O. A. (2007). "Long term effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea (Guill. and Per.) on some biochemical parameters in normal rabbits." African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 247–251.

[28] Leung W, Busson F, Jardin C (1968). Food consumption table use in Africa. FAO, Rome. Italy 306.

[29] Kouyate, A. M. (2005). Aspects ethnobotaniques et étude de la variabilité morphologique, biochimique et phénologique de Detarium microcarpum Guill. Et Perr. au Mali. Ghent University.

[30] Onweluzo J, Obanu Z, Onuoha K (1994). "Functional properties of some lesser known tropical legumes." Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 31, pp. 302-306.

[31] Bamisaye, F.A., Ajani, E.O., Nurain, I.O., Adebisi, K.E., Quadri, R.T and Minari, J.B (2014). "Evaluation of Growth Performance of Rats Fed with Sweet Detar, Detarium Microcarpum Fruit as Supplementary Feed Ingredient." Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 115-121.

[32] Bailey, S.W. (1980). In: Brindley, G.W., Brown, G. (Eds.), "Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their XRay Identification: Structures of Layer Silicates." Mineralogical Society, London, pp. 1–39.

[33] Akinwande, B.A., Salawudeen, T.O., Arinko ola, A.O. and Jimoh, M.O. (2014). "A suitability assessment of alkaline activated clay for application in vegetable oil refining." International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.1–12.

[34] Amosa M.K, Mohammed I.A, Yaro S.A, Arinkoola A.O and Azeez G.O (2010). "Comparative analysis of the efficacies of ferrous gluconate and synthetic magnetite as sulfide scavengers in oil and gas drilling operation." NAFTA, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 117-122.

[35] Smith, I. H. and Pace, G. W. (1982). "Recovery of microbial polysaccharides.” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology," Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 119 -129.
[36] Sheng, J., (2010). Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery: Theory and Practice. Gulf Professional Publishing. Oxford.

[37] Milas, M., Rinaudo, M., and Tinland, B. (1985). "The viscosity dependence on concentration, molecular weight and shear rate of xanthan solutions." Polymer Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 157-164.

[38] Wyatt, N. B., Gunther, C. M., & Liberatore, M. W. (2011). "Increasing viscosity in entangled polyelectrolyte solutions by the addition of salt." Polymer, Vol. 52, No. 11, pp. 2437-2444.