A Semi-Analytical Method for History Matching and Improving Geological Models of Layered Reservoirs: CGM Analytical Method

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Soran University, Soran, Iraq

2 Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK


History matching is used to constrain flow simulations and reduce uncertainty in forecasts. In this work, we revisited some fundamental engineering tools for predicting waterflooding behavior to better understand the flaws in our simulation and thus find some models which are more accurate with better matching. The Craig-Geffen-Morse (CGM) analytical method was used to predict recovery performance calculations and it was simple enough which can be applied in a spreadsheet. In this study, the analytical approach of history matching was applied to a layered reservoir from a shallow marine deposit which was composed of different facies includes lower shoreface facies (LSF), middle shoreface facies (MSF) and upper shoreface facies (USF). Truncated Gaussian Simulation (TGS) is often used to stochastically distribute the facies in the geological model around a deterministic mean representation. The actual distribution is often hard to determine. Starting with the deterministic element of the facies distributions, corrections were made by matching the CGM method predictions to historical data. These corrections were amalgamated in the model and produced a much better history match. Further, the modifications were used to condition the stochastic simulator to provide a geologically more robust model that also matched history. The results showed that the variation of the total field production rate (FPR) between the deterministic model and history data was reduced by about 19.8% (from 21.52% to 1.73%) after applying history match analytically.


[1] Craig Jr, F., Geffen, T., Morse, R. and others. (1955). "Oil recovery performance of pattern gas or water injection operations from model tests." Transactions of the AIME, Vol. 204, No. 1, pp. 7-15.

[2] Craig, F. (1971). “The reservoir engineering aspects of waterflooding.” 1st ed., New York: Henry L, Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME.

[3] Buckley, S. and  Leverett, M. (1942). "Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in Sands." Transactions of the AIME, Vol. 146, No. 01, pp. 107-116.

[4] Suder, F.E. and Calhoun, J.C., Jr. (1949). "Waterflood Calculations." Drilling and production practice, pp. 260-270.

[5] Stiles, W. E. (1949). "Use of Permeability Distribution in Water Flood Calculations." Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 9-13.

[6] Dykstra, H. and  Parsons, R.L.  (1950). "The Prediction of Oil Recovery by Waterflooding." Secondary recovery in the United States, Vol. 2, pp. 160-174.

[7] Welge, H. J. (1952). "A Simplified Method for Computing Oil Recovery by Gas or Water Drive." Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 91-98.

[8] Douglas, J., Jr., Blair, P.M., and Wagner, R.J. (1958). "Ca1cu1ation of Linear Waterf1ood Behavior Including the Effects of Capillary Pressure." Transactions of AIME, Vol. 213, pp. 96-102.

[9] Prats, M., Matthews, C.S., Jewett, R.L. and Baker, J.D. (1960). "Prediction of Injection Rate and Production History for Five-Spot Floods. " Transactions of AIME, Vol. 216, No. 2, pp. 98-105.

[10] Abernathy, B. F. (1964). "Waterflood Prediction Methods Compared to Pilot Performance in Carbonate Reservoirs." Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 276-282.

[11] Bush, J. L. and Helander, D. P. (1968). "Empirical Prediction of Recovery Rate in Waterflooding Depleted Sands." Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 20, No. 09, pp. 933-943.

[12] Wu, C. (1988). "Waterflood performance projection using classical waterflood models." SPE production technology symposium, Hobbs, New Mexico, 7-8 Nov., pp. 1-6.

[13] Kruger, W. (1961). "Determining areal permeability distribution by calculations. " Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 69-696.

[14] Hutchinson Jr., C. A., Dodge, C. F. and Polasek, T.L. (1961). "Identification, Classification and Prediction of Reservoir Nonuniformities Affecting Production Operations. "Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 13,  No. 3. pp. 223-230.

[15] Bennion, D. and Griffiths, J. (1966). "A stochastic model for predicting variations in reservoir rock properties." Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, Vo. 6, No. 1, pp. 9-16.

[16] Craig Jr, F. (1970). "Effect of reservoir description on performance predictions." Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1-239.

[17] Spivey, J. P., Frantz Jr, J. H. and  Holditch, S.A. (1994). "History Matching Production Data Using Analytical Solutions for Linearly Varying Bottom-hole Pressure." Eastern Regional Conference and Exhibition, Charesion, WV, pp. 95-106.

[18] Saavedra, N., Peralta, R. and Cobb, W. (2003). "Distribution of Injected Water by Using CGM Method: A Case History in Palogrande-Cebu Field." SPE  Latin American and Caribbean  Petroleum Engineering Conference, Trinidad, Port-of- Spain, 27-30 April, pp. 1-8.

[19] Lerma, M.K. (2003). "Analytical Method to Predict Waterflood Performance." Proceedings of SPE Western Regional/AAPG Pacific Section Joint Meeting.

[20] Gomez, V., Gomez, A. and Duran, J. (2009). "Analytical simulation of the injection/production system of the La Cira east and north areas using CGM method." SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Cartagena, (SPE 121854), pp. 2-7.

[21] Tarek, A. (2001). Reservoir engineering handbook. 2nd ed., United States: Gulf Professional.

[22] Samandarli, O., Al-Ahmadi, H. and Wattenbarger, R. A. (2011). "A semi-analytical method for history matching fractured shale gas reservoirs." SPE Western North American Regional Meeting, Alaska, (SPE 144583), pp. 1-14.

[23] Olalotiti-Lawal, F. and Friedel T. (2015). "Efficient semi-analytical engine for performance prediction of unconventional reservoirs." SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, West Virginia, (SPE-177290-MS), pp. 1-23.

[24] Tostado, M., Popa, A., Cassidy, S. and Shepeherd, D. (2016). "An analytical approach for well production history matching in a heavy oil reservoir." SPE Western North American Regional Meeting, Alaska, (SPE-180371), pp. 1-11.

[25] Yong, L ., Baozhu, L., Benbiao, S., Weimin, Z., Qi, Z. and Xiong. L. (2017). "Reservoir Simulation History Matching and Waterflooding Performance Forecast for a Large Sandstone Reservoir in Middle  East." SPE Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition.