Modeling and Optimization of Anethole Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction from Fennel Seeds using Artificial Neural Network

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Surface Phenomenon and Liquid-Liquid Extraction Research Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, University College of Engineering, Postal Code: 1417466191, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Fouman Faculty of Engineering, College of Engineering, Postal Code: 1417466191, University of Tehran, Iran


Extraction of essential oils from medicinal plants has received researcher’s attention as it has a wide variety of applications in different industries. In this study, ultrasonic method has been used to facilitate the extraction of active ingredient anethole from fennel seeds. Effect of different parameters like extraction time (20, 40, and 60 min), power (80, 240, and 400 Watts) and solid particle size (0.3, 1, and 1.7 mm) on the anethole extraction yield have been studied. The box-Behnken design method has been used for the design of experiments to reduce the number of experiments. A second-degree polynomial was proposed to predict the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable. An artificial neural network was trained with experimental data to provide another model for the system. Optimal results achieved when using the Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation algorithm, Logsig, and Tansig transfer functions for hidden and output layers and the number of 10 neurons in the hidden layer. Coefficient of determination, sum of squared errors, root of mean square error, and absolute average deviation were found to be 0.9933, 0.0199, 0.0059, and 2.1944 for the ANN model and 0.9851, 0.0425, 0.0059 and 2.1944 for the design of experiment (DOE) model, respectively.


[1] Kunieda S, inventor; Takasago International Corp, assignee. Flavor enhancer, food or beverage containing the flavor enhancer, and method of flavor enhancement. United States patent application US 10/564,437. 2006 Jul 20.
[2] Mohamad RH, El-Bastawesy AM, Abdel-Monem MG, Noor AM, Al-Mehdar HA, Sharawy SM, El-Merzabani MM. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011 Sep 1;14(9):986-1001.
[3] Piccaglia R, Marotti M. Characterization of some Italian types of wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2001 Jan 15;49(1):239-44.
[4] Bilia AR, Flamini GU, Taglioli V, Morelli IV, Vincieri FF. GC–MS analysis of essential oil of some commercial Fennel teas. Food Chemistry. 2002 Mar 1;76(3):307-10.
[5] Oktay M, Gülçin İ, Küfrevioğlu Öİ. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2003 Mar 1;36(2):263-71.
[6] Shahat AA, Ibrahim AY, Hendawy SF, Omer EA, Hammouda FM, Abdel-Rahman FH, Saleh MA. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars. Molecules. 2011 Feb;16(2):1366-77.
[7] Pakravan P, Akhbari A, Moradi H, Azandaryani AH, Mansouri AM, Safari M. Process modeling and evaluation of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment through response surface methodology and artificial neural network in a photocatalytic reactor using poly ethyleneimine (PEI)/titania (TiO 2) multilayer film on quartz tube. Applied Petrochemical Research. 2015 Mar 1;5(1):47-59.

[8] Özel MZ, Göğüş F, Lewis AC. Comparison of direct thermal desorption with water distillation and superheated water extraction for the analysis of volatile components of Rosa damascena Mill. using GCxGC-TOF/MS. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2006 May 4;566(2):172-7.
[9] Rodríguez-Solana R, Salgado JM, Domínguez JM, Cortés-Diéguez S. Characterization of fennel extracts and quantification of estragole: Optimization and comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and Soxhlet techniques. Industrial Crops and Products. 2014 Jan 1;52:528-36.
[10] Gedye R, Smith F, Westaway K, Ali H, Baldisera L. The use of microwave ovens for rapid organic synthesis. Tetrahedron Letters. 1986;27(3):279-82.
[11] Reverchon E. Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 1997 Apr 14;10(1):1-37.
[12] Khan MK, Abert-Vian M, Fabiano-Tixier AS, Dangles O, Chemat F. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols (flavanone glycosides) from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel. Food Chemistry. 2010 Mar 15;119(2):851-8.
[13] Del Castillo E. Process optimization: a statistical approach. Springer Science & Business Media; 2007 Sep 14.
[14] Pournejati R, Karbalaei-Heidari HR, Budisa N. Secretion of recombinant archeal lipase mediated by SVP2 signal peptide in Escherichia coli and its optimization by response surface methodology. Protein Expression and Purification. 2014 Sep 1;101:84-90.
[15] Zhang C, Daidi FA, Xiaoxuan MA, Yan'e LU, Wenjiao XU, Pengfei GA. Optimization of fermentation process for human-like collagen production of recombinant Escherichia coli using response surface methodology. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2010 Feb 1;18(1):137-42.
[16] Mokhtari L, Ghoreishi SM. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of trans-anethole from Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seeds: Optimization of operating conditions through response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Journal of CO2 Utilization. 2019 Mar 1;30:1-0.

[17] Salajegheh E, Gholizadeh S. Optimum design of structures by an improved genetic algorithm using neural networks. Advances in Engineering Software. 2005 Nov 1;36(11-12):757-67.
[18] Ameer K, Chun BS, Kwon JH. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of steviol glycosides and total phenolic content from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves using response surface methodology and artificial neural network modeling. Industrial Crops and Products. 2017 Dec 15;109:672-85.
[19] Nazghelichi T, Aghbashlo M, Kianmehr MH. Optimization of an artificial neural network topology using coupled response surface methodology and genetic algorithm for fluidized bed drying. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 2011 Jan 1;75(1):84-91.
[20] Sefat MY, Borgaee AM, Beheshti B, Bakhoda H. Modelling energy efficiency in broiler chicken production units using artificial neural network (ANN). International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences. 2014;8(1):7-14.
[21] Gharagheizi F, Eslamimanesh A, Mohammadi AH, Richon D. Determination of critical properties and acentric factors of pure compounds using the artificial neural network group contribution algorithm. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 2011 May 12;56(5):2460-76.
[22] Khajenoori M, ASL AH. Prediction of Trans-anethole Extraction Yield from Pimpinella Anisum Seeds Using Artificial Neural Network. Uluslararası Doğa ve Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi.;12(1):37-41.
[23] Damayanti A, Setyawan E. Essential oil extraction of fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare) using steam distillation. International Journal of Science and Engineering. 2012;3(2):12-4.
[24] Teslić N, Bojanić N, Rakić D, Takači A, Zeković Z, Fišteš A, Bodroža-Solarov M, Pavlić B. Defatted wheat germ as source of polyphenols—Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction by RSM and ANN approach. Chemical Engineering and Processing-Process Intensification. 2019 Sep 1;143:107634.