Using a New Mixture of Reagents for Effective Inhibition of Corrosion and Salt Precipitation in the Petroleum Industry

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences and Engineering, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran


In recent years, universal inhibitors capable of inhibiting both corrosion and salts have attracted much attention in the petroleum industry. In this work, various industrial scale and corrosion inhibitors were used to develop a new mixture of reagents for the prevention of calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and corrosion. The developed mixture of reagents (named DAHAPZ) consists of the following components: DTPMP, ATMP, HEDP, 2-aminoN-decyl-3-phenyl propionamide, 2-propyl-3-ethyl-8-oxychinolin – ZnCl2. When using DAHAPZ, an inhibition efficiency of more than 92% was observed for salts of CaCO3, BaSO4, and CaSO4) and corrosion (for a steel carbon in an acidic environment). After the application of DAHAPZ, the corrosion rate was reduced from 2 mm/year to 0.04 mm/year (an efficiency of 98%). The results of the impedance spectrum test showed that the optimal concentration of DAHAPZ for effective inhibition is 30 ppm. Furthermore, the turbidity test and the measurement of the amount of precipitated salts confirmed the high inhibition performance of DAHAPZ to prevent salt precipitation. DAHAPZ inhibits the salt crystals, which could serve as a protective barrier, thereby reducing the corrosion rate at various temperatures. The deceleration of the crystal growth rate when using DAHAPZ is associated with effective adsorption on the crystals, and a decrease in the crystal surface area for growth. Also, the results of coreflood experiments on the adsorption of the reagents onto the carbonate and sandstone rocks showed that DAHAPZ is more suitable to be used in carbonate reservoirs.


  1. Oddo JE, Tomson MB. Why scale forms in the oil field and methods to predict it. SPE Production & Facilities. 1994 Feb 1;9(1):47-54.
  2. Olajire AA. A review of oilfield scale management technology for oil and gas production. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2015 Nov 1;135:723-37.
  3. Wylde JJ, Turner N, Austill M, Okocha C, Obeyesekere N. Development, testing and field application of a novel combination foamer-iron sulfide scale inhibitor-corrosion inhibitor in east Texas. In SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. Montgomery, Texas, USA;2017 April 3.
  4. Wang Q, Liang F, Al-Nasser W, Al-Dawood F, Al-Shafai T, Al-Badairy H, Shen S, Al-Ajwad H. Laboratory study on efficiency of three calcium carbonate scale inhibitors in the presence of EOR chemicals. Petroleum, 2018 Dec 1;4(4):375-84.
  5. Macedo RGMDA, Marques NDN, Paulucci LCS, Cunha JVM, Villetti MA, Castro BB, Balaban RDC. Water-soluble carboxymethylchitosan as green scale inhibitor in oil wells. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2019 July 1;215:137-42.
  6. Nikoo AH, Malayeri MR. On the affinity of carbonate and sandstone reservoir rocks to scale formation – Impact of rock roughness. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2021 Feb 5;610:Article 125699.
  7. Amro MM. Effect of scale and corrosion inhibitors on well productivity in reservoirs containing asphaltenes. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2005 April 30;46(4):243-52.
  8. Khormali A, Petrakov DG. Laboratory investigation of a new scale inhibitor for preventing calcium carbonate precipitation in oil reservoirs and production equipment. Petroleum Science. 2016 May 1;13:320-7.
  9. Li M, Dai C, Yang B, Qiao Y, Zhu Z. New and green multi-component scaling and corrosion inhibitor for the cooling water of central air conditioners. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 2017 Feb 1;26:764-72.
  10. Mpelwa M, Tang SF. State of the art of synthetic threshold scale inhibitors for mineral scaling in the petroleum industry: a review. Petroleum Science. 2019 Aug 2;16:830-49.
  11. Obot IB, Onyeachu IB, Umoren SA, Quraishi MA, Sorour AA, Chen T, Aljeaban N, Wang Q. High temperature sweet corrosion and inhibition in the oil and gas industry: Progress, challenges and future perspectives. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2020 Feb 1;185:Article 106469.
  12. Liu X, Sheng X, Yao Q, Zhao L, Xu Z, Zhou Y. Synthesis of a new type of 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic-acid-modified terpolymer scale inhibitor and its application in the oil field. Energy & Fuels, 2021 Mar 17;35(7):6136-43.
  13. Zhang P, Liu Y, Zhang N, Fai lp W, Kan AT, Tomson MB. A novel attach-and-release mineral scale control strategy: Laboratory investigation of retention and release of scale inhibitor on pipe surface. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Chem. 2019 Feb 25;70:462-71.
  14. Ruan G, Kan AT, Tomson MB, Zhang P. Facile one-pot synthesis of metal-phosphonate colloidal scale inhibitor: Synthesis and laboratory evaluation. Fuel. 2020 Dec 15;282:Article 118855.
  15. Kan AT, Dai Z, Tomson MB. The state of the art in scale inhibitor squeeze treatment. Petroleum Science. 2020 Dec 1;17:1579-601.
  16. Mady MF, Bayat P, Kelland MA. Environmentally friendly phosphonated polyetheramine scale inhibitors - excellent calcium compatibility for oilfield applications. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2020 May 4;59(21):9808-18.
  17. Kumar S, Naiya TK, Kumar T. Developments in oilfield scale handling towards green technology-A review. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2018 Oct 1;169:428-44.
  18. Li S, Qu Q, Li L, Xia K, Li Y, Zhu T. Bacillus cereus s-EPS as a dual bio-functional corrosion and scale inhibitor in artificial seawater. Water Research. 2019 Dec 1;166:Article 115094.
  19. Abdel-Gaber AM, Abd-El-Nabey BA, Khamis E, Abd-El-Khalek DE. A natural extract as scale and corrosion inhibitor for steel surface in brine solution. Desalination. 2011 Sep 1;278(1-3):337-42.
  20. Ahmed MEM, Saad MA, Hussein IA, Onawole AT, Mahmoud M. Pyrite scale removal using green formulations for oil and gas applications: Reaction kinetics. Energy & Fuels. 2019 April 2;33(5):4499-505.
  21. Zhang W, Li HJ, Chen L, Sun J, Ma X, Li Y, Liu C, Han X, Pang B, Wu YC. Performance and mechanism of a composite scaling–corrosion inhibitor used in seawater: 10-Methylacridinium iodide and sodium citrate. Desalination. 2020 July 15;486;Article 114482.
  22. Meriem-Benziane,M., Bou-Saïd B, Nasser Muthanna BG, Boudissa I. Numerical study of elbow corrosion in the presence of sodium chloride, calcium chloride, naphthenic acids, and sulfur in crude oil. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2021 March 1;198:Article 108124.
  23. Farhadian A, Rahimi A, Safaei N, Shaabani A, Abdouss M, Alavi A. A theoretical and experimental study of castor oil-based inhibitor for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic medium at elevated temperatures. Corrosion Science. 2020 Oct 1;175:Article 108871.
  24. Kittel J, Ropital F, Grosjean F, Sutter EMM, Tribollet B. Corrosion mechanisms in aqueous solutions containing dissolved H2S. Part 1: Characterisation of H2S reduction on a 316L rotating disc electrode. Corrosion Science. 2013 Jan 1;66:324-9.
  25. Popoola LT, Grema AS, Latinwo GK, Gutti B, Balogun AS. Corrosion problems during oil and gas production and its mitigation. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry. 2013 Sep 27;4(35):1-15.
  26. Al-Sabagh AM, El Basiony NM, Sadeek SA, Migahed MA. Scale and corrosion inhibition performance of the newly synthesized anionic surfactant in desalination plants: Experimental, and theoretical investigations. Desalination. 2018 July 1;437:45-58.
  27. Zhu T, Wang L, Sun W, Yang Z, Wang S, Zhou Y, He S, Wang Y, Liu G. Corrosion-induced performance degradation of phosphorus-containing scale inhibitors at carbon steel-water interface. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2018 March 22;57(14):5183-9.
  28. Bilousova NА, Herasymenko YS, Red’ko RМ, Vasyl’ev HS, Vorobiova VІ. Inhibitor protection of steel against corrosion and scaling under the influence of ultrasound. Materials Science. 2020 Oct 9;55:831-9.
  29. Quraishi MA, Ansari FA. Inhibitive effect of some gemini surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acetic acid media. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2011 Jan 6;36:11-20.
  30. Finsgar M, Jackson J. Application of corrosion inhibitors for steels in acidic media for the oil and gas industry: A review. Corrosion Science. 2014 Sep 1;86:17-41.
  31. Gutierrez ME, Gaona SJ., Calvete FE, Botett JA, Ferrari JV. Effect of scaling and corrosion inhibitors on the static adsorption of an anionic surfactant on a carbonate rock. In SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. Galveston, Texas, USA;2019 March 29.
  32. Liu Y, Zhang Y, Yuan J. Influence of produced water with high salinity and corrosion inhibitors on the corrosion of water injection pipe in Tuha oil field. Engineering Failure Analysis. 2014 Oct 1;45:225-33.
  33.  Liu G, Xue M, Yang H. Polyether copolymer as an environmentally friendly scale and corrosion inhibitor in seawater. Desalination. 2017 Oct 1;419:133-40.
  34. Shaw SS, Sorbie KS. Synergistic properties of phosphonate and polymeric scale-inhibitor blends for barium sulfate scale inhibition. SPE Production & Operations. 2015 Feb 1;30(1):16-25.
  35. Nikoo AH, Mahmoodi L, Malayeri MR, Kalantariasl A. Gypsum-brine-dolomite interfacial interactions in the presence of scale inhibitor. Chemical Engineering Science. 2020 Aug 31;222:Article 115718.
  36. Mpelwa M, Tang SF. State of the art of synthetic threshold scale inhibitors for mineral scaling in the petroleum industry: A review. Petroleum Science. 2019 Aug 2;16:830-49.
  37. Farooqui N, Sorbie KS. Oilfield scale inhibitors for application in precipitation squeeze treatments: Solubility of the Ca_PPCA complex. In SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition. Aberdeen, Scotland;2014 May 14.
  38. Javidi M, Chamanfar R, Bekhrad S. Investigation on the efficiency of corrosion inhibitor in CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in the presence of iron carbonate scale. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. 2019 Jan 1;61:197-205.
  39. Chauhan DS, Verma C, Quraishi MA. Molecular structural aspects of organic corrosion inhibitors: Experimental and computational insights. Journal of Molecular Structure. 2021 March 5;1227:Article 129374.
  40. Yang W, Feng W, Liao Z, Yang Y, Miao G, Yu B, Pe, X. Protection of mild steel with molecular engineered epoxy nanocomposite coatings containing corrosion inhibitor functionalized nanoparticles. Surface and Coatings Technology. 2021 Jan 25;406:Article 126639.
  41. Hou BS, Zhang QH, Li YY, Zhu GY, Lei Y, Wang X, Liu HF, Zhang GA. In-depth insight into the inhibition mechanism of pyrimidine derivatives on the corrosion of carbon steel in CO2-containing environment based on experiments and theoretical calculations. Corrosion Science. 2021 April 1;181:Article 109236.
  42. Awad MK, Mustafa MR, Elnga MMA. Computational simulation of the molecular structure of some triazoles as inhibitors for the corrosion of metal surface. Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM. 2010 Nov 15;959(1-3):66-74.
  43. Dong S, Yuan X, Chen S, Zhang L, Huang T. A novel HPEI-based hyperbranched scale and corrosion inhibitor: construction, performance, and inhibition mechanism. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2018 Oct 2;57(42):13952-61.
  44. Vorobyova V, Skiba M. Peach pomace extract as efficient sustainable inhibitor for carbon steel against chloride-induced corrosion. Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion. 2020 Nov 16;7:Article 11.
  45. Sabzi R, Arefinia R. Investigation of zinc as a scale and corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in artificial seawater. Corrosion Science. 2019 June 1;153:292-300.
  46. Xu Y, Guo X, Chen N, Zhang L, Zhao W. Synthesis and corrosion inhibitory effect of a novel β-amino alcohol compound. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2021 Feb 5;610:Article 125974.
  47. Chen J, Chen F, Han J, Su M, Li Y. Evaluation of scale and corrosion inhibition of modified polyaspartic acid. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 2020 Feb 25;43(6):1048-58.
  48. Spicka K, Johnston CJ, Jordan MM, Nguyen L, Linares-Samaniego S, Sutherland L. The impact of organic acid on scale inhibitor/corrosion inhibitor interaction, a case study from West Africa. In SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. The Woodlands, Texas, USA;2011 April 11.
  49. Fu L, Lv J, Zhou L, Li Z, Tang M, Li J. Study on corrosion and scale inhibition mechanism of polyaspartic acid grafted β-Cyclodextrin. Materials Letters. 2020 April 1;264:Article 127276.
  50. Yao J, Ge H, Zhang Y, Wang X, Xie S, Sheng K, Meng X, Zhao Y. Influence of pH on corrosion behavior of carbon steel in simulated cooling water containing scale and corrosion inhibitors. Materials and Corrosion. 2020 Feb 25;71(8):1266-75.
  51. Zhang W, Li HJ, Chen L, Sun J, Ma X, Li Y, Liu C, Han X, Pang B, Wu YC. Performance and mechanism of a composite scaling–corrosion inhibitor used in seawater: 10-Methylacridinium iodide and sodium citrate. Desalination. 2020 July 15;486:Article 114482.
  52. Coto B, Martos C, Peña JL, Rodríguez R, Pastor G. Effects in the solubility of CaCO3: Experimental study and model description. Fluid Phase Equilibria. 2012 June 25;324:1–7.
  53. Khormali A, Sharifov AR, Torba DI. Investigation of barium sulfate precipitation and prevention using different scale inhibitors under reservoir conditions. International Journal of Engineering Transactions A: Basics. 2018 Oct 1;31(10):1796-802.
  54. Khormali A, Sharifov AR, Torba DI. Increasing efficiency of calcium sulfate scale prevention using a new mixture of phosphonate scale inhibitors during waterflooding. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2018 May 1;164:245-58.
  55. Baugh TD, Lee J, Winters K, Waters J, Wilcher J. A fast and information-rich test method for scale inhibitor performance. In SPE Offshore Technology Conference Offshore Technology Conference. Houston, Texas, USA;2012 April 30.
  56. Jiang Z, Li Y, Zhang Q, Hou B, Xiong W, Liu H, Zhang G. Purine derivatives as high efficient eco-friendly inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in acidic medium: Experimental and theoretical calculations. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2021 Feb 1;323:Article 114809.
  57. Wang XX, Zhang TY, Dao GH, Xu ZB, Wu YH, Hu HY. Assessment and mechanisms of microalgae growth inhibition by phosphonates: Effects of intrinsic toxicity and complexation. Water Research. 2020 Nov 1;186:Article 116333.
  58. Rabizadeh T. The nucleation, growth kinetics and mechanism of sulfate scale minerals in the presence and absence of additives as inhibitors. PhD Thesis. The University of Leeds,UK;2016 Nov 1.
Volume 55, Issue 2
December 2021
Pages 257-276
  • Receive Date: 23 April 2021
  • Revise Date: 23 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 28 May 2021
  • First Publish Date: 13 July 2021