Investigation of Operating Parameters on Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anethole in Fennel Essential Oil

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Surface Phenomenon and Liquid-Liquid Extraction Research Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Fouman Faculty of Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


In this paper, the operational impact of three parameters including power of ultrasonic apparatus, size of fennel seeds and experiment time on the extraction yield of Anethole, which is the main considerable component in fennel essential oil and its concentration have been studied through Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction. The ultrasonic extraction of oil from fennel seeds using a solution of 70% water-ethanol was studied at different particle sizes, different ultrasonic powers and three different levels of time. The most effective parameter was particle size, while the experiment time had the least impact on both the efficiency and Anethole concentration as well. As a result, compared to Soxhlet method, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction was more efficient. In this experiment, eighteen constituents were identified for fennel seeds using GC–MS. The major components were Anethole (78.12%), Fenchone (8.81%), Limonene (4.39%), and Estragole (4.52%). Furthermore, the analysis of two quadratic models using the Box-Behnken design (BBD) indicated that the quadratic polynomial model can be applied for estimating the Anethole extraction yield as well as Anethole concentration.


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Volume 55, Issue 2
December 2021
Pages 339-351
  • Receive Date: 05 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 14 August 2021
  • First Publish Date: 04 September 2021