Investigation of Surface Treatment of Carbon Fiber by Dynamic Method in the Polyurethane Composites

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Polymer Engineering Department, Amir Kabir University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Aerospace engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

5 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.


Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers were chemically modified with a different ratio of Sulfuric acid (SA) to Nitric acid (NA), then reinforced Polyurethane (PU) composites in the presence of carbon fibers were prepared. The structural and surface characteristics of the modified carbon fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR results showed the presence of the carbonyl groups in a higher ratio of NA and the formation of carboxyl groups in a lower ratio of NA. The interaction between carbon fiber and PU matrix was studied by the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) method. The DMTA results showed with increasing carbon fiber/PU matrix interaction, the intensity of glass transition temperature decreased. Matching the DMTA results with the power-law model and Cole-Cole diagram showed that the process of carbon fiber modification can increase the amount of chain with a long relaxation time in the PU matrix.


  1. Frenzel H, Mäder E. Influence of different interphases on the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced polymers, in Interfaces, Surfactants and Colloids in Engineering. H.J. Jacobasch. 1996:199-202.
  2. Sánchez A M. Influence of the nature and the content of carbon fiber on properties of thermoplastic polyurethane‐carbon fiber composites. Journal of applied polymer science. 2003; 90:2676-2683.
  3. Zo H J. Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of carbon fiber composites with polyamide and thermoplastic polyurethane blends. Fibers and Polymers. 2014; 15:1071-1077.
  4. Husić S, Javni I, Petrović Z S.Thermal and mechanical properties of glass reinforced soy-based polyurethanecomposites. Composites Science and Technology. 2005; 65: 19-25.
  5. Lu X. Moisture–absorption, dielectric relaxation, and thermal conductivity studies of polymer composites. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 1998; 36: 2259-2265.
  6. Chou P J, Ding D. Characterization of moisture absorption and its influence on composite structures. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials. 2000; 13: 207-225.
  7. Corrêa R A, Nunes R C, Lourenço V L. Investigation of the degradation of thermoplastic polyurethane reinforced with short fibres. Polymer degradation and stability. 1996; 52: 245-251.
  8. Chen C H, Ma C C M. Pultruded fiber reinforced blocked polyurethane (PU) composites. I. Processability and mechanical properties. Journal of applied polymer science. 1992; 46: 937-947.
  9. Hou L L, Liu H Z, Yang G S. A novel approach to the preparation of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and polyamide 6 blends by in situ anionic ring‐opening polymerization of ε‐caprolactam. Polymer international. 2006; 55: 643-649.
  10. Zang Z. Mechanical property improvement of plasma treated carbon fiber-reinforced polyurethanes (PUR) composites with SiO2 filler. Polymer-Plastics Technologyand Engineering. 2012; 51: 696-700.
  11. Zhang Z Z. Effect of carbon fibers surface treatment on tribological performance of polyurethane (PU) composite coating. Wear. 2008; 264: 599-605.
  12. Tiwari S. Influence of cold remote nitrogen oxygen plasma treatment on carbon fabric and its composites with specialty polymers. Journal of Materials Science. 2011; 46: 964-974.
  13. Baun W. Anodization of evaporated aluminium on Ti-6 wt% Al-4 wt% V. Journal of Materials Science. 1980; 15: 2749-2753.
  14. Wilson W, Haggmark L, Biersack J. Calculations of nuclear stopping, ranges, and straggling in the low-energy region. Physical Review B. 1977; 15: 2458.
  15. Wan Y. Effect of surface treatment of carbon fibers with gamma-ray radiation on mechanical performance of their composites. Journal of materials science. 2005; 40: 3355-3359.
  16. Li J. High-energy radiation technique treat on the surface of carbon fiber. Materials Chemistry andPhysics. 2005; 94: 315-321.
  17. Tang L G. Kardos J L. A review of methods for improving the interfacial adhesion between carbon fiber and polymer matrix. Polymer composites. 1997; 18: 100-113.
  18. Sellitti C, Koenig J, Ishida H. Surface characterization of graphitized carbon fibers by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Carbon. 1990; 28: 221-228.
  19. Chen S, Feng J. Epoxy laminated composites reinforced with polyethyleneimine functionalized carbon fiber fabric: Mechanical and thermal properties. Composites Science and Technology. 2014; 101: 145-151.
  20. Tran M Q. Carbon fibre reinforced poly (vinylidene fluoride): impact of matrix modification on fibre/polymer adhesion. Composites Science and Technology. 2008; 68: 1766-1776.
  21. Rand B, Robinson R. Surface characteristics of carbon fibres from PAN. Carbon. 1977; 15: 257-263.
  22. Jang J, Yang H. The effect of surface treatment on the performance improvement of carbon fiber/polybenzoxazine composites. Journal of materials science. 2000; 35: 2297-2303.
  23. Zhang X. Effects of carbon fiber surface treatment on the tribological properties of 2D woven carbon fabric/polyimide composites. Applied Physics A. 2009; 95: 793-799.
  24. Li J. The effect of surface modification with NA on the mechanical and tribological properties of carbon fiber‐reinforced thermoplastic polyimide composite. Surface and Interface Analysis. 2009; 41: 759-763.
  25. Zhang X. Pei X, Wang Q. The effect of fiber oxidation on the friction and wear behaviors of short-cut carbon fiber/polyimide composites. Expr. Polym. Lett. 2007; 1: 318-325.
  26. Su F h. Tribological and mechanical properties of the composites made of carbon fabrics modified with various methods. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2005; 36: 1601-1607.
  27. Tiwari S, Bijwe J, Panier S. Tribological studies on polyetherimide composites based on carbon fabric with optimized oxidation treatment. Wear. 2011; 271: 2252-2260.
  28. Park S J, Park B J. Electrochemically modified PAN carbon fibers and interfacial adhesion in epoxy-resin composites. Journal of materials science letters. 1999; 18: 47-49.
  29. Xu Z. Graphitization of polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers and graphite irradiated by γ rays. Materials Letters. 2009; 63: 1814-1816.
  30. Lim S. Surface modification of carbon nanofiber with high degree of graphitization. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2004; 108:1533-1536.
  31. Gupta A, Harrison I R., Lahijani J. Small-angle X-ray scattering in carbon fibers. Journal of applied crystallography. 1994; 27: 627-636.
  32. Meneghetti P, Qutubuddin S. Synthesis, thermal properties and applications of polymer-clay nanocomposites. Thermochimica Acta. 2006; 442: 74-77.
  33. Ramanathan T. Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites. Nature nanotechnology. 2008; 3: 327-331.
  34. Pothan L A, Oommen Z, Thomas S. Dynamic mechanical analysis of banana fiber reinforced polyester composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2003; 63: 283-293.
  35. Martin O, Averous L. Poly (lactic acid): plasticization andproperties of biodegradable multiphase systems. Polymer. 2001; 42: 6209-6219.
  36. Amash A, Zugenmaier P. Thermal and dynamic mechanical investigations on fiber‐reinforced polypropylene composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1997; 63: 1143-1154.
  37. Fornes T, Paul D. Modeling properties of nylon 6/clay nanocomposites using composite theories. Polymer. 2003; 44: 4993-5013.
  38. Randrianantoandro H. Viscoelastic relaxation of polyurethane at different stagesof the gel formation. 1. Glass transition dynamics. Macromolecules. 1997; 30: 5893-5896.
  39. Ornaghi H L. Mechanical and dynamic mechanical analysis of hybrid composites molded by resin transfer molding. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2010; 118: 887-896.
  40. Harris B. Study of carbon fibre surface treatments by dynamic mechanical analysis. Journal of materials science. 1993; 28: 3353-3366.
  41. Florek P, Król M, Jele P, Mozgawa W. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Doped with Graphene Oxide in Light of Spectroscopic Studies. Materials. 2021; 14: 1835.
  42. Hwang D , Lee S G, Cho D. Dual-Sizing Effects of Carbon Fiber on the Thermal, Mechanical, and Impact Properties of Carbon Fiber/ABS Composites. Polymers; 2021, 13: 2298.
  43. Zhao D, Hamada H, Yang Y. Influence of polyurethane dispersion as surface treatment on mechanical, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of laminated woven carbon-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 composites. Composites Part B. 2019; 12:105
Volume 56, Issue 1
June 2022
Pages 37-52
  • Receive Date: 16 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 14 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 16 November 2021
  • First Publish Date: 12 January 2022