Piezoceramic Element Design and Fabrication for Ultrasonic Transducer of Gas Meter

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Research Laboratory, School of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Flow Measurement Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Ultrasonic transducers play a significant role in generating and receiving the acoustic waves in ultrasonic flowmeters. Depending on the required accuracy, the ultrasonic transducers can be installed either in one pair or more in an ultrasonic flowmeter. The main part of an ultrasonic transducer is its piezoceramic element. In this work, four piezoceramic elements with different diameter to thickness ratio were fabricated and one of them with center frequency of 200 kHz was selected for the numerical simulations. The piezoceramic element and its gaseous propagation environment were simulated numerically using the finite element method. Similar to the experiments, air was considered as the propagation medium and PZT-5H was used as the piezoceramic element. The results showed that the numerical simulation is in good agreement with the experimental data which indicates that numerical simulation could be an efficient alternative way to reduce trial and errors. It leads to good results if reasonable assumptions are used.

Keywords


[1] Gu X, Cegla F. The Effect of Internal Pipe Wall Roughness on the Accuracy of Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flowmeters. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 2018 May 16(99):1-8.

[2] Sun Y, Zhang T, Zheng D. New Analysis Scheme of Flow-Acoustic Coupling for Gas Ultrasonic Flowmeter with Vortex near the Transducer. Sensors. 2018;18(4):1151.

[3] Fan Z, Jiang W, Wright WM. Non-contact ultrasonic gas flow metering using air-coupled leaky Lamb waves. Ultrasonics. 2018 Sep 1;89:74-83.

[4] Chen Q, Li W, Wu J. Realization of a multipath ultrasonic gas flowmeter based on transit-time technique. Ultrasonics. 2014 Jan 1;54(1):285-90.

[5] Zhu WJ, Xu KJ, Fang M, Shen ZW, Tian L. Variable ratio threshold and zero-crossing detection based signal processing method for ultrasonic gas flow meter. Measurement. 2017 Jun 1;103:343-52.

[6] Luca A, Marchiano R, Chassaing JC. Numerical simulation of transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters by a direct approach. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control. 2016 Jun;63(6):886-97.

[7] J. Kocbach, Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Transducers: Influence of geometry and material parameters on vibration, response functions and radiated field,  Department of Physics, University of Bergen, 2000 sep.

[8] Garcia JA. A Novel Ultrasonic Method to Quantify Bolt Tension. University of South Florida; 2012.

[9] Eccardt PC, Landes H, Lerch R. Applications of finite element simulations to acoustic wave propagation within flowing media. International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology. 1998 Jan 1;11(3-5):163-9.

[10] Pierce AD. Wave equation for sound in fluids with unsteady inhomogeneous flow. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 1990 Jun;87(6):2292-9.

[11] Astley RJ. A finite element, wave envelope formulation for acoustical radiation in moving flows. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 1985 Dec 22;103(4):471-85.

[12] Deng Q, Fan Y, Wang L, Xiong Z, Wang H, Li Y, Zhang Q, Kawasaki A, Jiang W. Effects of polarization on mechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics evaluated by modified small punch tests. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 2011 Dec 28;51(1R):011501.

[13] IRE I. Standards on piezoelectric crystals: determination of the elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants. Proc. IRE. 1958;46:764-78.

[14] Deü JF, Larbi W, Ohayon R. Piezoelectric structural acoustic problems: Symmetric variational formulations and finite element results. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 2008 Mar 15;197(19-20):1715-24.

[15] Cheeke JD. Fundamentals and applications of ultrasonic waves. CRC press; 2016 Apr 19.

[16] COMSOL A. Acoustics Module User’s Guide. COMSOL AB. 2007.