The Comparison of Three Metallic, Organic, and Polymeric Crosslinked HPAM Gels for Water Conformance Applications

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Petroleum Engineering, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish, Iran

2 School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Institute of Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Unwanted production of water in oil and gas reservoirs due to water coning is one of the headaches of the petroleum industry. Despite mechanical methods, some chemicals are also developed to delay or prevent this problem. Polymer gels have been proved to be a reliable and economical solution for water production. In this paper, we present a summary of tests for three different gel systems for a pre-determined reservoir condition. A metallic crosslinker (Chromium(III) Acetate), a polymeric crosslinker (Polyethylenimine), and an organic crosslinker mixture (Hexamethyleneteramine + Hydroquinone) are used for crosslinking HPAM polymer. The tests are performed for different concentrations of polymer and cross-linker. Gel strength and stability of these polymer gels are recorded over six weeks. The apparent viscosity of these gels is recoded and compared. The impact of salinity on gel strength and stability is also investigated. The results show that for the determined reservoir conditions HPAM-Chromium(III) Acetate and HPAM-Hexamethyleneteramine-Hydroquinone gels could form a stable and rigid barrier against water.


Bailey B, Crabtree M, Tyrie J, Elphick J, Kuchuk F, Romano C, Roodhart L. Water control. Oilfield review. 2000 Jan;12(1):30-51.
[2] Funston R, Ganesh R, Leong LY. Evaluation of technical and economic feasibility of treating oilfield produced water to create a “new” water resource. InCalifornia, USA: Ground Water Protection Council Conference 2002 Oct 16.
[3] Veil J. US produced water volumes and management practices in 2012. Groundwater Protection Council. 2015 Apr.
[4] Able CM, Trembly JP. Advanced supercritical water-based process concepts for treatment and beneficial reuse of brine in oil/gas production. Desalination. 2020 May 1;481:114334.
[5] Sandiford BB, U.S. Patent No. 3,308,885. US Patent and Trademark Office. 1967.
[6] White JL, Goddard JE, Phillips HM. Use of polymers to control water production in oil wells. Journal of Petroleum Technology. 1973 Feb 1;25(02):143-50.
[7] Thakur GC, Tachuk AR. Retardation of water coning in oil wells using polymers-a reservoir simulation application. Annual Technical Meeting Petroleum Society of Canada.1974.
[8] De Aguiar KL, de Oliveira PF, Mansur CR. A comprehensive review of in situ polymer hydrogels for conformance control of oil reservoirs. Oil & Gas Science and Technology–Revue d’IFP Energies nouvelles. 2020;75:8.
[9] Zhu D, Bai B, Hou J. Polymer gel systems for water management in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs: a chemical review. Energy & fuels. 2017 Dec 21;31(12):13063-87.
[10] Amir Z, Said IM, Jan BM. In situ organically cross‐linked polymer gel for high‐temperature reservoir conformance control: A review. Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 2019 Jan;30(1):13-39.
[11] Rajaee S, Salehi MB, Moghadam AM, Sefti MV, Mohammadi S. Nanocomposite hydrogels adsorption: Experimental investigation and performance on sandstone core. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2017 Nov 1;159:934-41.
[12] Sun F, Lin M, Dong Z, Zhu D, Wang SL, Yang J. Effect of composition of HPAM/chromium (iii) acetate gels on delayed gelation time. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. 2016 Jun 2;37(6):753-9.
Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 2020, 55(1): 151-161 161
[13] Sun Y, Fang Y, Chen A, You Q, Dai C, Cheng R, Liu Y. Gelation behavior study of a resorcinol–Hexamethyleneteramine crosslinked polymer gel for water shut-off treatment in low temperature and high salinity reservoirs. Energies. 2017 Jul;10(7):913.
[14] Bai B, Zhou J, Yin M. A comprehensive review of polyacrylamide polymer gels for conformance control. Petroleum exploration and development. 2015 Aug 1;42(4):525-32.
[15] Sydansk RD, Argabright PA. Conformance improvement in a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation using a polymer gel. 1987 Aug 4.
[16] Sydansk RD. A new conformance-improvement-treatment chromium (III) gel technology. InSPE enhanced oil recovery symposium 1988 Jan 1. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
[17] Sydansk RD. A newly developed chromium (III) gel technology. SPE Reservoir Engineering. 1990 Aug 1;5(03):346-52.
[18] Dai C, Zhao G, You Q, Zhao M. A study on environment‐friendly polymer gel for water shut‐off treatments in low‐temperature reservoirs. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2014 Apr 15;131(8).
[19] Jia H, Pu WF, Zhao JZ, Liao R. Experimental investigation of the novel phenol− formaldehyde cross-linking HPAM gel system: Based on the secondary cross-linking method of organic cross-linkers and its gelation performance study after flowing through porous media. Energy & fuels. 2011 Feb 17;25(2):727-36.
[20] Yadav US, Mahto V. Investigating the effect of several parameters on the gelation behavior of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide–hexamine–hydroquinone gels. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2013 Jul 17;52(28):9532-7.
Volume 55, Issue 1
June 2021
Pages 151-161
  • Receive Date: 09 January 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 February 2021
  • Accept Date: 13 February 2021
  • First Publish Date: 14 March 2021